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Chapter 3 - Transitions
Small groups began to command the lion's share of the public's attention in the mid-40s. Still, it was in this decade that a few big bands made some of their most creative music, as well as bringing jazz to Carnegie Hall. Benny Goodman did the first jazz recital there; in 1943, Duke Ellington's piece Black, Brown and Beige was unveiled at Carnegie. Leonard, who worked for Duke's organization sporadically from 1942 on, was as excited as anyone in the Ellington camp to see this dream realized.
Duke subtitled his masterwork "A Tone Parallel to the History of the American Negro." Though several magazines understood the intent and importance of B., B. and B., reviews in the New York Post, the Daily News and the Herald Tribune were unfavorable and condescending. Duke was hurt, but continued to produce major works and lead his band to new heights.

Duke Ellington...Jazz Pioneer for 25 Years
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The Duke Ellington Story
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Duke Ellington The Symphonic Ellington, Night Creatures, Second Movement Duke Ellington
Carnegie Hall Concerts, January 1946
A Tonal Group - Meloditty